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3. The cakes are delicious. He’d like to have _____ third one because _____ second one is rather too small. (2002上海春)

  A. a; a            B. the; the           C. a; the            D. the; a

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2. Mr. Brown bought _____ new telephone yesterday so he told me the new by _____ telephone.

  A. a; the          B. the; /             C. the; the           D. a; /

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1. I don’t like talking on _____ telephone; I prefer writing _____ letters. (2002北京)

  A. a; the          B. the; /             C. the; the           D. a; /

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365. On hearing the news of the accident in the coal mine, she _____ pale.

    A. got              B. changed          C. went             D. appeared

第三章 语  法

高考英语单项填空设题的方法与角度的依据是“三维模式”,即从结构、语义和语用三个方面来出题,切入的角度有7个,即:交际、情态、反述、省略与替代、特定句式、概念外延和思维定式。

1) 结构方面

   NMET单项填空题的句子结构一般是完整的,即有主语和谓语。主语相当于句子的主题,指明句子讲的是什么,一般是对方已知的信息;谓语是对有关问题加以说明的部份,一般是向对方提供新的信息。考查的重点,也是在谓语部分。命题人有时故意将谓语部分的结构加以改变,“神似貌非”,迷惑考生。根据思维定势的负迁移作用,命题人往往设置干扰性很强的干扰项。这就要求考生不仅具备牢固的基础知识,更要具备灵活的临场分析应变能力。例如:

① -Do you know our town at all?

 -No, this is the first time I _____ here.

 A. was           B. have been         C. am            D. m corning

分析:B最佳。该句运用了这样一个句型“It/This+is+the+序数词+time+that……”。在这个句型中that从句常用现在完成时态。切入角度:结构+交际+特定句式

② The film brought the hours back to me _____ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.

A. until           B. that                   C. when           D. where

分析:C最佳。本题题干长,信息量大,句子成分多,结构复杂,选项之间相互干扰强,难度大。在空白处前,既有时间名词the hours,又有人称代词me 或副词词组back to me。这很难一下子判断出先行词究竟是“the hours”还是“me”。上句可以写成The film brought the hours(--I was taken good care of in that faraway village)back to me.根据先行词为the hours, C项应为最佳答案。设题角度:结构+替代+特定句式

2) 语义方面

每个单项填空题的考查实际上都是对语义的考查。语境、结构只是语言运用的外在形式,都是为了恰当地表达出一定的语义服务的。认真地审题,准确地把握语义,对于解答好单项填空题,提高解题能力,起着十分重要的作用。虽然近几年来NMET试题的题干越来越长,结构越来越复杂,暗示信息也难以把握,同学们解答起来有一定的难度,但是命题人所设置的题干均是表达规范得体,语义符合逻辑的语言载体。同学们解题时要认真推敲,切勿“望文生义”。

例如:

①I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _____ it was?

 A. where             B. what               C. how                D. which

分析:D最佳。题干已经明确交待了“某一本书或另一本书”,只是还没有确定究竟是哪一本而已。而且,“or”也给考生起了提示作用,表示选择。故选择D项 , 设题角度:语义+替代 。

② - Have you seen _____ pen?  I left it here this morning.

   - Is it _____ black one?  I think I saw it somewhere.

A. a; the          B. the; the            C. the; a              D. a; a

分析:D最佳。本题虽说是考查冠词的用法,但也是语义+思维定式考查的具体体现。因为通常我们在冠词教学中最初都说:泛指某人或某物时用不定冠词;而表示特定的或上文已提到过的人或物用定冠词。然而此处从题干暗示可以看出,问句与答语中的pen均非特指,故前后均用不定冠词。语义+交际+思维定式

3) 语用方面

NMET单项选择试题越来越重视语用能力的考查,即:语言实用能力。具体而言;基础语法知识,词汇、习语及交际用语等都以置一语境的形式来考查,使语言更具灵活、生动和得体。题干的条件信息愈隐蔽,各选项结构十分相似而、且具有较强的干扰性,这样更能体现试题能力立意的要求。例如:

① --- Can you come on Monday or Tuesday?

  --- I ’m afraid _____ day is possible. (NMET 99)

A. either          B. some               C. neither              D. any

分析:C为最佳。本题设置实际语境,问者期望Monday or Tuesday 选择一天,而答者有afraid之义,不能如问者的期望。依据语言的得体性,答案只能选C。设题角度:语用+概念外延+交际。

② - I stayed at a hotel  while in New York.

  - Oh,did you? You _____ with Barbara.

A. could have stayed  B. could stay           C. would stay          D. must have stayed

分析:A最佳。本题属于情态动词交际情景中的运用。题干涉过去(在纽约)所发生的事;同时从“did you ”语气可以看出“你本来是能够(could have stayed)和芭芭拉住在一起的,而不是“你一定(must have stayed)和芭芭拉住在一起”,故选A,语用+情态+反述。

第一节. 高考语法一题多变训练题(选择最佳答案)

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364. They’ve _____ us $150,000 for the house. Shall we take it?

    A. provided          B. supplied          C. shown            D. offered

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363. He accidently _____ he had quarreled with his wife and that he hadn’t been home for a couple of weeks.

    A. let out            B. took care          C. made sure         D. made out

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362. --- _____ for the glass!

    --- It’s OK. I’m wearing shoes.

    A. Look out          B. Walk out          C. Go out               D. Set out

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361. A man is being questioned in relation to the _____ murder last night.

    A. advised           B. attended          C. attempted         D. admitted

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360. It’s ten years since the scientist _____ on his life’s work of discoverig the valuable chemical.

    A. made for          B. set out            C. took off          D. turned up

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359. If you are feeling so tired, perhaps a little sleep would _____.

    A. act              B. help             C. serve             D. last

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